Begins on the lee side of oceanfront dunes, shell mounds and coastal berms, and extends as far inland as suitable conditions allow. Soils vary in pH from neutral to moderately alkaline and consist of sand, sometimes with shell fragments. Fertility and moisture retention are good due to surface litter and humus accumulation. Slopes and ridges are well-drained, while flats and swales may retain water for some time; plant distribution will reflect these conditions. Maritime forest is limited to well-drained sites. Plants tolerate moderate amounts of salt, wind, drought and some shade.